补语

补语是补充的语句,当【主语+谓语】或者【主语+谓语+宾语】句型还不完整的时,补充语句是句子完整,这就是补语,补上了语句就完整了. 同样如果某个修饰语看着很像补语,你不确定时,就把它去掉,句子不完整了,说明是补语,不是修饰语。

 

补语分为宾语补足语和主语补足语,用以补足主语或宾语的状态、动作、位置等。可以作补语的有:名词,不定式,现在分词,过去分词,形容词,副词,介词短语。

常见的可以带宾补的动词及句型有
call sb/sth sth.
allow/ask/order/tell/teach sb to do sth
see/hear/make/have/watch sb do/doing sth
keep sb doing sth.
keep sth.+形容词
find sb./sth. doing/介词短语
例:We call her Lucy.(名词 Lucy )
I allow him to have a look.(不定式 to have a look)
He kept me waiting half a day.(现在分词短语waiting half a day)
I saw him wounded.(过去分词wounded)
It drove her mad.(形容词 mad)
Let’s show him out.(副词out)
They found the boy in the well.(介词短语in the well)

在被动语态句子中,原主动语态中的宾语变成了主语,相应原来的宾补也就变成了主补。例如:
主动句:They found the boy in the well.(in the well为宾补)
被动句:The boy was found in the well.(in the well为主补)

Complements in English Grammar

In grammar‏‎ a complement – not to be confused with a compliment! – is a way to provide more information about the subject or the object of a sentence‏‎.

He is gorgeous!

Did you like the present she gave you?

A complement completes an idea, whether this is expressed with a phrase‎, a clause or a word.

When the complement refers to the subject of a sentence we talk about subject complement. When it refers to the object we talk about object complement.

Subject Complements

A subject complement completes the subject by giving it a quality or a name.

This meat smells funny when you cook it.

Funny gives a quality to the subject (the meat).

Her mother became the centre of all the village gossip.

the centre of all the village gossip gives a name to the subject (her mother).

备注:语法就像这里的centre和center(the American spelling of centre)一样有趣。

When a complement gives a subject a quality, it is usually an adjective or an adjectival phrase‎.

I am exhausted

The poor little boy broke his leg on his birthday.

When a complement gives a subject a name, it is usually a noun, a noun phrase‏‎ or a noun clause.

Even an innocent pair of sunglasses can become a weapon.

This is not a car! It is a ridiculously old, smelly contraption.

The question is how do we get out of this mess now.

Subject complements usually follow linking verbs like: be, seem, look, become, appear, feel, grow, smell, taste, sound etc.

She is very young.

Her homemade cookies soon became popular.

That dog smells awful.

Object Complements

Object complements follow the direct object. In general, verbs which have to do with perceiving, judging, or changing something can cause their direct objects to take an object complement.

They have painted their kitchen green.

The witness called him a liar.

The police caught him driving fast.

 

Reference:
Complements in English Grammar

 

Kim C. Jin

Kim C. Jin

Hello, my name is Kim, from Shuren University. I can speak English, Chinese of course, and Japanese. 私は 超超 と申します、25歳の会社員 です。趣味は運転することと山登りです。一番好きな言葉は一期一会。よろしくお願いします。

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