副词

副词的英语是adverb,ad- 不妨理解成add, 加诸于动词之上 —- 也就是说用来修饰动词,说明动作或行为的方式、状态等,在句中做状语, 如副词well:You speak English well.
除修饰东词外,副词也可修饰形容词,如副词very: Your English is very good.

verb 动词

副词用以修饰动词、形容词和其他副词,还可修饰全句。说明时间、地点、程度、方式等概念。

副词的分类 1

按形式分类
一.简单副词指的是一些本身就是副词,没有特殊的词尾。如:

now 现在 then 当时

there 那里 here 这里

quite 相当 very 非常

always 总是 often 经常

too 也 also 也

how 怎样 again 再一次

二.复合副词

somewhat 有点 nowhere 无处

therefore 因此 somehow 不知怎么的

三.由形容词+ly构成的副词

这一类多数是方式副词。如:

bravely 勇敢地 quickly 迅速地

quietly 悄悄地 greatly 非常、大大地

carefully 仔细地 gladly 高兴地

slowly 慢慢地 deeply 深深地

clearly 明显地 firmly 坚定地

四.与形容词同形的副词

英语 形容词 副词

early 早的 早早地

friendly 友好的 友好地

lively 活泼的 生气勃勃地

enough 足够的 足够地

fast 快的 快地

long 长期的 长期地

high 高的 高地

late 迟的 迟地

 

副词的分类 2

按意义分类
一. 方式副词

suddenly 突然地 rapidly 迅速地

warmly 热烈地 successfully 成功地

quickly 很快地 carefully 仔细地

proudly 骄傲地 angrily 愤怒地

二. 地点、方向副词

here 这里 there 那里

outside 在外 inside 在内

away 远离 straight 径直地

upstairs 上楼 backwards 向后

三. 时间副词

now 现在 then 当时

soon 不久 still 依然

tomorrow 在明天 yesterday 在昨天

already 已经 yet仍

四. 频度副词(又称:频率副词)

always 总是 usually 通常

frequently 频繁地 often 经常

sometimes 有时 seldom 很少,不常

rarely 罕有地 never 从不

五. 程度副词

very 非常 quite 十分

too 太 pretty 相当

rather 稍微 extremely 极端地

almost 几乎 nearly

 

Adverbs in English Grammar

Adverbs are known as a kind of ‘catch-all’ class of words‏‎ in English‏‎ and there is a lot more to them than meets the eye. To begin with, however, we can say that adverbs give us more information about other words and clarify usage.

Adverbs can give us more information about an adjective:

The only red bike.

Or a verb:

She swam beautifully.

Or a sentence as a whole:

Unfortunately, it is raining so I cannot visit the zoo.

Types of Adverbs

As mentioned above, the adverb class of words tends to be a catch-all class, and there are many types of adverbs grouped there.

Different people class adverbs in different ways. However, in teaching English we often use these 5 categories: degree, frequency, time, manner & place. (For more on classification, see the end of this article.)

Adverbs of Degree

Adverbs of Degree tell us how much of something (from all to none). They usually come before the adjective or adverb they qualify.

Is there enough wine?

She can hardly sing.

Adverbs of Frequency

Adverbs of Frequency tell us how often something happens. Usually, they occur before the main verb.

I rarely eat meat.

I often go to the cinema.

Many of these adverbs do not have any special form. A typical list from always to never:

always
often
frequently
usually
normally
sometimes
occasionally
seldom
rarely
never

Bear in mind this list is arbitrary and different people will order these words differently.

Adverbs of Time

Adverbs of time tell us when something happened. They usually occur at the beginning or the end of the sentence.

I saw him last Sunday.

They met me here yesterday.

Next Thursday is my birthday.

Many of these adverbs do not have any special form and they are often a prepositional phrase.

Adverbs of Manner

Adverbs of manner tell us how something happened. They usually occur at the end of the sentence though sometimes they’re placed before the main verb.

You can dance well.

She sang that song badly.

We carefully unwrapped the packaging.

Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of place tell us where something happened. They usually occur at the end of the sentence.

I saw him at the cinema.

They met me here yesterday.

Sometimes we can put them at the beginning of the sentence for emphasis:

In the middle of the road, there was a dead cat.

Many of these adverbs do not have any special form and they are often prepositional phrases.

Adverb Order

If we have more than one adverb in an adverb phrase, we generally use this order:

{manner} + {place} + {time}

you must go quickly + into the kitchen + after lunch

But again, this order is not definitive and can be changed.

you must go quickly + after lunch + into the kitchen

after lunch + you must go + quickly + into the kitchen

But be careful here, some ordering is not acceptable.

Form

Many, but not all, adverbs end in -ly. These adverbs are commonly called regular adverbs‏‎ as they are formed by following the rule of adding -ly to the end of the adjective (spelling rules apply in some cases):

He is a bad driver; he drives badly.

It is a clear day; she can see clearly.

Adverbs which do not end in -ly are called irregular adverbs‏‎ and common ones include fast, slow, well and so on.

Classifying Adverbs

Different grammars classify adverbs in different ways. A good, simple, classification is to talk about adverbs of degree, time, frequency, place and manner (see above for more on these classifications) and this is how we refer to them in these resources. These are also often used by teachers of English.

However, you can also see these classifications:

descriptive: saying yes, saying no, doubting, reasoning, degree, manner, number, time, location, direction…
Interrogative: choice, asking why, asking how, asking when, asking where…
demonstrative: choice (thus, then, hence), when (now, then, hence), where (here, there), direction (hither, thither, hence, thence)
conjunctive: including

However, these classifications tend to be used more by linguists and are often less exact and precise. This means they’re often open to debate.

 

Reference:

Adverbs in English Grammar

Kim C. Jin

Kim C. Jin

Hello, my name is Kim, from Shuren University. I can speak English, Chinese of course, and Japanese. 私は 超超 と申します、25歳の会社員 です。趣味は運転することと山登りです。一番好きな言葉は一期一会。よろしくお願いします。

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